Curious Connections

Undertaking historical research work into early pupils of the School is like unravelling the best detective story!

Sampler names
1838 sampler

Researching the names of pupils embroidered on a sampler listing pupils in 1838, E Zurhorst (marked) turned out to be Eliza Clarissa Zurhorst. As she was not listed at the School in the 1841 census, it meant that she had left school by then which gave her a birth date of around 1823. The name was unusual enough to be fairly sure that the Eliza who was baptised at Hackney St John in August of that year was the right one. The parents were Frederick William and Ann Judith Zurhorst.

The early registers[1] of the School then revealed another Zurhorst, this time Rosina Matilda born in 1815. The register confirmed the names of both parents so even if the baptismal record for Eliza had any doubt attached, the school register clarified the connection.

Register name
Extract from school register

It was unusual for two sisters to attend the School. Indeed the rules had been very clear that only one daughter was to be granted a place. Furthermore, both parents were alive throughout the time their daughters were pupils and for some time afterwards. There was no rule that the father must be deceased before a girl could be admitted to the School but there was a clear rule about indigence so, if Frederick was still alive during and after his daughters being at the School, his indigence must be in terms of income or family circumstances. As the layers of the Zurhorst story began to peel away, it revealed another connection with the School that was rather unexpected.

Eliza and Rosina were two of the 18 children of Frederick and Judith. Yes, you did read that correctly. Eighteen!

Zurhorst
Zurhorst children

It is not known where the Zurhorst name originated. Frederick William was born in Ireland and his father Hermann had arrived there from Rotterdam but it is not known if he was actually Dutch. It would appear, however, that Frederick William spent the majority of his life in Britain. He married Ann Judith Williams on 12 Oct 1801 at St Botolphs, Aldgate where he gave his residence as Portsoken. This is an area of London next to the parishes of Spitalfields, Stepney, and St. George’s in the east, its name suggesting that it was originally a trading post by the gates to the City. Ann Judith lived in Spitalfields. That the Zurhorsts continued to live in this area is shown by the baptismal place for their many offspring and also that Frederick William was granted the freedom of the City in 1815.

Portsoken
Portsoken Ward

Image of Portsoken Ward from http://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/new-history-london/pp663-665[2]

He was a member of the Lodge of Peace and Harmony as was the father of Patience Smith (previous posting, which also featured St Botolphs). His trade was given variously as a shipping agent or a broker. He is listed in London trade directories of the time which might suggest a growing prosperity. More unusually, Ann Judith was also in business as she traded in ready-made linen. This might suggest an entrepreneurial couple but for that rule at the School about indigence which gives a different slant. Of course, it is possible that simply because of their very large number of siblings the girls, Eliza and Rosina, became eligible for Masonic support.

Other documents indicated that Fredrick was in business with his wife. The evidence suggested that the pair probably ran a linen warehouse on the banks of the Thames.[3]

The ‘other documents’ are not identified in the article. This might suggest an entrepreneurial couple but for that rule at the School about indigence which gives a different slant. Perhaps Frederick William became involved in the linen warehouse because his ship brokering business was not bringing in the income it once had. Of course, it is possible that simply because of their very large number of siblings the girls, Eliza and Rosina, became eligible for Masonic support.

The reference to the programme Who Do You Think You Are, and specifically to the Sheila Hancock episode is the first half of the curious connection but let us look at the stories of Eliza and Rosina first.

Eliza was born in the year that Rosina entered the School – 1823. Baptised at St John’s, Hackney, she will have come to the School probably after her older sister had left it although it is just possible that they were both there for a brief time together.

St John's
Hackney St John

St John’s Hackney image from Wikipedia attributed to K B Thompson

Of her time at the School there is no information but she left between 1838 and 1841 and the first reference to her after school is with her parents in St Peter Port, Guernsey in 1841. No address is cited in 1841 but in 1851, by which time Ann Judith had died, it was given as 4 Mount Row, St Peter Port.

House in Mount Row
Mount Row with house

The aerial view above is courtesy of Google Earth and the image of a house in Mount Row is from an online property sale. It is probably not No 4 but gives an idea of perhaps the sort of house they occupied.

Thereafter Eliza disappears from the records until we find her death in 1896 in West Ham. The probate adds a curious note as it lists her as ‘Zurhorst otherwise Harris’ but records her as a spinster of 69 Chichester Rd, Leytonstone who died on 2nd November 1896. It is unclear from this why she should have the two surnames but there is a fleeting glimpse of an Eliza C Harris of the right age as a visitor to a house in Jamaica Street, Mile End Old Town. The probate was granted to Lemprière Hughes Renouf, civil servant. [Nope – no idea!] The name may suggest a continuing association with the Channel Islands and you probably won’t be surprised to hear that, much later and entirely unconnected, there is another Renouf association with the School!

Rosina, on the other hand, perhaps because she stayed on the mainland, is more easily traced.

She had joined the School in 1823 when the family residence was Down Terrace, Hackney.

Smaller houses called Down Terrace, some occupied by tradespeople, lined part of Back Lane (later Clarence Road) by 1821.[4]

A report in 2013[5] gave the information that this terrace, renamed Amhurst Terrace, was having to be demolished as cracks in the building had been reported by members of the public.

Gibbobs Building
Amhurst Terrace formerly Down Terrace

Image from http://www.hackneyhive.co.uk/index/2013/11/amhurst-road-view-images-of-visible-damage-to-gibbons-building/ courtesy of Nick Perry.

Rosina left School on 23rd September 1830, ‘delivered to her mother’ at 13 Retreat Place, Homerton. Although Retreat Place still exists, it comprises C20th blocks of flats today. In 1830 it was an area which, once respectable, was beginning to slide downhill in terms of gentrification.

Rosina married John Butter Petrie, a dock clerk at the West India docks, on 31 Oct 1837 at St Mary Stratford Bow and between 1839, when their firstborn arrived, and 1878, when John died, they lived in the Bethnal Green/Hackney/St George in the East/Poplar district at various addresses. In 1881 the widowed Rosina was living with one married daughter (Jane, who married Alfred Zurhorst, her cousin and son of Hamnet – see 5 paragraphs further on!) and another married daughter (Clementine) was also there with her son. The names of the daughters were all from John’s side of the family. His mother had been Helen Butter before she married and Helen Ann Petrie (the firstborn) in 1851 is living at the home of Clementine Anderson, her aunt. Jane Zurhorst nee Petrie, also called her own daughter Clementine as did older sister Helen who had married Harry G Montiguani in Scotland. (And you thought quadratic equations were difficult!)

After John’s death, Rosina found life more challenging and in 1889 was admitted to Bromley House, part of the Workhouse, described as ‘destitute, widow of John; admitted from Poplar’. In 1891 she is listed as a patient in Poplar and Stepney Sick Asylum, the buildings of which were finally demolished in 2008. [For more information about the Workhouse see http://www.workhouses.org.uk/PoplarAndStepneySAD/. This fabulous website is the work of Peter Higginbotham on the workhouses of Britain and contains a wealth of information.]

Asylum
The Poplar and Stepney Sick Asylum
Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images
images@wellcome.ac.uk
http://wellcomeimages.org
The Poplar and Stepney Sick Asylum, Bromley-by-Bow: the street facade. Wood engraving, (c.1870?).
1870 after: Arthur Harston and Christopher HarstonPublished: –
Copyrighted work available under Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Asylum map
Map giving outline shape of Asylum http://forum.casebook.org/showthread.php?t=995

It seems very likely that a death record of 1894 is that of Rose Matilda although the second forename is given as Martha. No further records for her are traced after this date. There is no probate but that is hardly surprising if she were destitute.

So the story of two Zurhorst daughters is encompassed by the nineteenth century and might have stayed there but for the BBC programme Who Do You Think You Are. The episode featuring the Zurhorsts was that for Sheila Hancock who had in her possession a portrait known as Madam Zurhorst.

Madam Zurhorst
Ann Judith Zurhorst nee Williams

The story outline of Sheila’s ancestry can be read on http://www.bbc.co.uk/whodoyouthinkyouare/past-stories/sheila-hancock.shtml or http://www.whodoyouthinkyouaremagazine.com/episode/sheila-hancock which establishes her as great-great grandniece of Eliza and Rosina – her direct ancestor was the girls’ brother Hamnet whose son Rosina’s daughter married. So Sheila Hancock connects to the School through her ancestors – but also, because she was married to John Thaw, there is a further curious connection.

Married actors
Sheila Hancock and John Thaw

Image from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-1053307

In 1991, John Thaw was at the School filming an episode of Inspector Morse, during which time two other pupils, Shezel and Mandy, interviewed him for the School magazine, which means that four pupils are involved in this story!

Morse being made
John Thaw filming Inspector Morse at the School 1991

Images from School magazine Machio

So from Rotterdam, via Ireland, London, the Channel Islands and Scotland and finally to Hertfordshire, the story of the Zurhorsts, Eliza and Rosina in particular, has some very curious connections between the nineteenth and twentieth century worlds and the School!

[1] GBR 1991 RMIG 3/2/1 Library & Museum of Freemasonry

[2] John Noorthouck, ‘Book 2, Ch. 25: Portsoken Ward’, in A New History of London Including Westminster and Southwark (London, 1773), pp. 663-665. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/new-history-london/pp663-665 [accessed 13 January 2017].

[3] http://www.bbc.co.uk/whodoyouthinkyouare/past-stories/sheila-hancock.shtml

[4] ‘Hackney: Clapton’, in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 10, Hackney, ed. T F T Baker (London, 1995), pp. 44-51. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/middx/vol10/pp44-51 [accessed 17 January 2017].

[5] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-25065892

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By Jeeves, it’s Wooster (playing Cupid!)

It is unlikely that many girls’ schools include matchmaking in their curriculum but the number of former pupils of RMSG who married a schoolfriend’s brother is legion. Perhaps the first of these was Patience Smith who later married the brother of Elizabeth Wooster. Both girls arrived at the School on October 21st 1819, two of the five pupils admitted at that time. (Another was the redoubtable Eliza Waterman Jarwood who was written about in the Matron posts.) Although Elizabeth was born in Gateshead in 1810 and Patience in London in 1809 in fact only a month separated their birthdates and when admitted to the School both had London addresses. Patience resided at 13 Holywell St, Shoreditch and Elizabeth at 5 Red Lion Court, Charterhouse Lane. 13 Holywell St still exists today (image from Google Earth) and is currently occupied by Biscuit Filmworks founded in 2000.

Holywell map
Holywell St and modern map of same

Image from Google Earth and map from http://www.londontown.com/LondonStreets/holywell_row_c98.html

Charterhouse Lane no longer exists although part of it is now Charterhouse Street (‘Charterhouse Square area: Charterhouse Street and other streets‘, in Survey of London: Volume 46, South and East Clerkenwell, ed. Philip Temple (London, 2008), pp. 265-279. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vol46/pp265-279 [accessed 24 December 2016].) Red Lion Court has long since gone but was probably the one described as: ’East out of Shoe Lane at No.42, in Farringdon Ward Without {Lockie, 1816-Elmes, 1831)’ although there were several Red Lion Courts in London. In 1845, Thomas Groutage, a baker, is given in a court record as residing at No 1 Little Red Lion Court Charter House Lane, Middlesex which suggests it was still in existence then.

Map Red
Contemporary map showing Red Lion Court

Patience’s father was (helpfully for research!) called John Smith; however, because he was a Freemason, it is more possible to pin him down and it seems likely to be one of two (although they could in fact be the same person), a member of the Lodge of Peace and Harmony. In one record he is given as a victualler of Long Alley, Moorfields, born in 1757. In another record, he is given as a waiter of White Horse, 32 Friday Street, perhaps not coincidentally a meeting place for the Lodge of Peace & Harmony.

Google Friday
Image cropped from Google Earth

Given that the presiding rule for admission to the School was indigence, it is feasible that the victualler had become the waiter as a downturn in his prospects. The White Horse survived until 1931 before being demolished. An application for building works there dated 1904 [‘Proposed rebuilding. Ground floor, basement, first-fourth floor plans, elevations to Friday Street.’] suggests that it was a building of a fair size.

Long Alley may have become Appold St today but later in Patience’s life, her address was given as Long Lane, Aldersgate which could be the same place.

Patience was baptised at St Leonards, Shoreditch on 26 December 1809 at 21 days old.

St Lens
Images of St Leonards

Image of church dated July 4th, 1816 https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7973146

Modern image St Leonard’s Church, Shoreditch High Street, Hackney, London. 28 January 2006. Photographer: Fin Fahey.

We know the baptismal date of Elizabeth (11 July 1810) but not the church in Gateshead (not given in record). Her parents, John & Esther, had been married at St Magnus the Martyr in London and the combination of references [Gateshead & London] suggest that the family moved to and from the two places although this is not certain. It would certainly have been a journey and a half at that time!

Of the girls’ days at the School, we know nothing except to say that they would have resided there for the duration of their schooling (holidays were then unheard of) until they came of age to leave. In the case of Patience, this was December 23rd 1824 when she was apprenticed to William Henry White. Elizabeth stayed another month before leaving on January 20th 1825 when she was ‘returned to her mother’. The phrase suggests that her father had died and this may have been the reason for her admission to the School in the first place.

For how long Patience would have been apprenticed is uncertain although the usual period was four years. She would probably have been a domestic servant rather than learning a trade of any kind. In 1831, she married Jeremiah Challenger Wooster, a widower and brother of her schoolfriend. This suggests that the girls had remained friends after their schooldays and, indeed, Elizabeth is a witness to Patience’s marriage at ‘St Leonard Foster Lane’. Actually, this church did not physically exist as it had been destroyed in the Great Fire and not rebuilt. However the parish united with Christ Church, Greyfriars Newgate Street so this is the actual building in which the wedding took place albeit the record is still given as St Leonard’s.

St Len Foster
St Leonard Foster Lane

Image on Wikipedia taken from March 22, 1845 issue of The Illustrated London News. Copyright expired.

Image of St leonards from http://openbuildings.com/buildings/st-leonard-foster-lane-profile-17706

A little over a year later, 3 November 1832 at St Botolph Bishopsgate, Elizabeth married Charles Helme.

St Bot times two
Double image of St Botolph

Painting by Alexander Poole Moore, 1796 http://www.artvalue.com/auctionresult–moore-alexander-poole-act-1778-st-botolph-s-bishopsgate-londo-999569.htm

Image William Pearson, Old Houses on the North West Corner of the Minories and Aldgate. 1810. British Museum, Binyon 22, Crace XXIII.92. © Trustees of the British Museum. Used on https://www.londonlives.org/static/StBotolphAldgate.jsp

The church stood outside the medieval city walls, near the Bishop’s Gate, and its title is often written as ‘St Botolph’s without Bishopsgate’ to show that it was outside the jurisdiction of the City. The church was founded circa 1200 but the building shown dates from 1725.

Both brides continued to live in London and are found there in the 1851 census although Patience and Jeremiah had moved to Cambridgeshire by 1861. In 1841, Jeremiah (then a cabinet maker) clearly indicated where he lived in a court case of 1st February 1841:

Court case
https://www.oldbaileyonline.org/images.jsp?doc=184102010039

The 1841 census then gives him as J C Wooster (but, oddly, with a wife Sarah!) as a cabinet maker in Red Lion Yard. Given the two pieces of information, it seems likely to be the right family although there are discrepancies that are unexplained.

In 1851, Patience Wooster was still in Long Lane, Aldersgate although Jeremiah, by then a Baptist minister, was at the Manor House in Swavesey. Clearly Patience was continuing to run the business in London as there were eight apprentices there in 1851. Unfortunately, one of these apprentices was ‘a bad lot’ and he was later convicted of stealing writing desks from the business. Patience was a witness in the case. In her testimony we learn that as well as residing on the premises there was also a shop in which Patience served the customers: “I generally serve in the shop” (https://www.oldbaileyonline.org). Clearly as well as creating writing desks, the Woosters were also selling them from the premises. Nor was this the first time the Woosters had had problems with an apprentice stealing from them. Charles Buckingham, aged 17, was found guilty in 1844 of stealing from his master, for which he received two month’s imprisonment.

The writing desks they were manufacturing were not like we might imagine of a writing desk today – a piece of freestanding furniture – but a more portable unit which would be placed on a small table to use and which had sections to store inks, pens and paper and often a lid that acted as a writing surface.

writing desks pics
Images of writing desks

Long Lane is a literal description of a street which goes from Aldersgate (A1) to Farringdon St. The map (Google Earth) shows its proximity to Charterhouse St. [The business labelled Ask for Janice, in case you were wondering, is a restaurant!] Today the original Georgian buildings are mostly above commercial premises.

Long Lane
Google Earth map of Long Lane today

Jeremiah and Patience were together in Swavesey, Cambs in 1861. The address was given as High St but later as Middle Watch. In fact one becomes the other so it is possible that it was always the same address. The issue is further clouded by the fact that it would appear that Swavesey Baptists were a schismatic group, branching off and reforming so it is unclear whether Jeremiah was minister of the Bethel Chapel or with the Particular Baptist movement or the Baptist Unitarian. There were two Baptist Chapels and both were in Middle Watch!

Midwatch
Middle Watch from Google Earth street view

The image above shows the type of property likely to have been there at the time. Much of the area is now more modern houses with a few scattered older properties of which this is one. Jeremiah died in 1872 but Patience continued to live in Swavesey for the rest of her life. She died in 1893.

Elizabeth, on the other hand, remained in London. In 1851, the census places her at 49 Aldersgate St – this is now very short and blends into St Martin le Grand; it has no old properties and even the London City Presbyterian Church there is post war. She was still at the same address in 1861 but after her husband died in 1866, she went to live with her daughter at 8 St Paul’s Place, St Paul’s Rd, Canonbury where she appears in the 1871 census.

paul place
8 St Paul’s Place from Google Earth street view

She died on 16 March 1879, her probate recording that she was late of St Paul’s Place but that she had died at 61 Albion Rd, Stoke Newington. Possibly this was the residence of another of her children.

albion today
61 Albion Rd from Google Earth street view

Thus a fifty year friendship came to a natural end: two little schoolgirls, sisters in law and both then widows, whose lives were entwined from at least 1819, the one playing cupid for the other. Perhaps the motto of Swavesey village is a fitting descriptor of their relationship: Steadfast in Work and Play.